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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.                                 157
ment of which crosses the Doab* from Find Dadan Khan
in a westerly direction. The summits of this range do not
rise higher than 3000 feet. East of the Jelam a very low
range of hills, only a few hundred feet in height, runs parallel
to that river for some distance from the Himalaya. Elsewhere
the country is level, and slopes very gently down from the
base of the Himalaya towards the sea. Attok, on the Indus,
is elevated 1000 feet, and Lahore about 800 feet above the
level of the sea. The junction of the Panjnad with the Indus
is elevated about 200 feet.
The climate of the Panjab is very dry. Along the base of
the Himalaya the periodical rains are well marked, occurring
at the same season as elsewhere in northern India, but their
quantity diminishes rapidly .in advancing westward, and to the
west of the Jelam they disappear. The amount of rain-fall
also diminishes in receding from the mountains. At Firoz-
pur and Lahore it is in ordinary seasons very small; and at
greater distances from the Himalaya the rains may be said
to cease entirely. Throughout the province, however, heavy
rain usually falls at midwinter, but does not continue for any
length of time.
The mean temperature of the Panjab does not differ mate-
rially from that of Agra and Delhi, but is rather lower. The
absence of rain in the western and southern parts of the pro-
vince raises the summer temperature very high, but the cool-
ness of the winter months compensates for this, and reduces
the mean temperature of the whole year.
The surface of the Panjab, like that of Sindh, is very fertile
where water is procurable for irrigation, but elsewhere it is
quite barren. Along the base of the Himalaya, from Ambala
as far as the Jelam, there is a very rich belt of fertile coun-
try. At a little distance froin the mountains, however, the
centre of each Doab is dry and barren, and the cultivation
is confined to a narrow belt along the great rivers. The soil
* Any tract of country included between two rivers which join is called in
India a Doab,